unknown civilization in the mouth of persian gulf 10000BC
Timetable Ancient History
Years BC. Event 2,400,000 Oldest known stone tools found in Africa 1,900,000 Homo Erectus inhabiting Africa 1,000,000 Homo Erectus reaches Asia 500,000 Early hand axes 460,000 Earliest known use of fire 380,000 First artificial shelter 200,000 Homo Sapiens sapiens inhabiting Africa 98,000 First known burials in Middle East 75,000 Homo sapiens inhabiting China 53,000 Colonization of Australia 45,000 Early cave art work 45,000 Oldest known musical instrument found in Africa 8000
First settlements at Jericho
The ancient settlement of Jericho was located in the Jordan Valley north of the Dead Sea. The presence of a natural spring in this location provided its settlers with fertile ground for growing grain. The city dates from at least 8000 B.C. The population of Jericho reached about 1000. Jericho is the oldest known walled city in the world. Its inhabitants were protected by a wall 2100' long which was dominated by a 30' tower. The city stood until it was sacked around 1400 B.C.
Ubaid Period in Mesopotamia
The Ubaid Period was a cultural period in Sumer. It lasted from about 5900 B.C. to 4300 B.C. and was named after the site from which the material was first discovered, Tel al-Ubaid.
The Ubaid Period consists of three sub periods: Ubaid I - also called the Eridu Period. Ubaid II - also called the Haji Mohammed Period. Ubaid III - also called the Late Ubaid.
The three periods are differentiated by the coloring and the style of the pottery used.
5000 First Mesopotamian cities erected 3500 Sumerians settle in Mesopotamia 3300 Sumerian writing on clay tablets 3250 Wheel in use in Mesopotamia 3100 Sumerian writing evolves into cuneiform
Let us have a look at the timetable from Sumer to Persia, as handed by Scholars.
with thanks to http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MESO/MESO.HTM
Mesopotamia 9000 - 500 BC
Susa Shushan befor and after capital of persian empire
Early Farming Communities 9000-5000 BCE
BCE. HISTORY CULTURE
9000 Beginning cultivation of wild wheat and barley and domestication of dogs and sheep; inaugurating of change from food gathering to food producing culture - Karim Shahir in Zagros foothills.7000 At Jarmo, oldest known permanent settlement: crude mud houses, wheat grown from seed, herds of goats, sheep, and pigs.6000 Migration of northern farmers settle in region from Babylon to Persian Gulf. Hassuna culture introduces irrigation, fine pottery, permanent dwellings; dominates culture for 1000 years, develops trade from Persian Gulf to Mediterranean.Pre-Sumerians 5000-3500 BC
BCE. HISTORY CULTURE
5000 Ubaidians develop first divisions of labor, mud brick villages, first religious shrines. Small temple at Eridu - earliest example of an offering table and niche for cult object.4500 4000 Semitic nomads from Syria and Arabian peninsula invade southern Mesopotamia, intermingle with Ubaidian population Temple at Tepe Gawra built - setting style for later examples.Sumerians 3500-1900 BC
BCE. HISTORY CULTURE
3500 Sumerians settle on banks of Euphrates Temple at Eridu - ziggurat prototype3000 Democratic assemblies give way to kingships, evolve into hereditary monarchies.
Kish - leading Sumerian city
Introduction of pictographs to keep administrative records. 3-D statues, e.g. Warka head. White Temple - ziggurat traditional design. Temple at Tell-Uqair - mosaic decorations. cuneiform land sales formal contracts. Eridu and Kish - simple palaces. "Standard of Ur" - war-peace plaque, religious statues, gold and silver artefacts buried in tombs of Ur. Sumerians of Abu Salabikh - first poetry.2750 Gilgamesh, hero of Sumerian legends, reigns as king of Erech2500 Lugalannemudu of Abab unites city states which vie for domination for 200 years. 2250 Ur-Nammu founds Ur's 3rd. dynasty; dedicates ziggurat at Ur moon-god Nanna, sets up early law code. Gudea, Prince of Lagash, art and lit patron, magnificent statues produced in his honor.2000 Elamites attack and destroy Ur.Babylonians and Assyrians 1900-500 BC
BCE. HISTORY CULTURE
1900 Amorites from Syrian desert conquer Sumer. 1800 Hammurabi ascends Babylonian throne. 1700 Hammurabi brings most of Mesopotamia under his control. Hammurabi introduces law code.1600 Hittite invasion from Turkey ends Hammurabi's dynasty. 1500 Assyria conquered by Hurrians from Anatolia. Bas-relief of baked brick appears as dominant art form - Karaindash Temple.1400 Kurigalzu assumes Babylonian throne 1200 Nebuchadrezzar I expels Elamites. 1100 King Tiglath-Pileser I leads Assyria to new era of power. Iron, introduced originally by Hittites, is used extensively in Assyria for tools and weapons.1000 Assyrian empire shattered by Aramaean and Zagros tribes. 150 Assyrian decline halted by Adadnirari II.900 Assurnasirpal II builds magnificent new capital, Calah, replacing old capital of Assur, present day Nimrud.800 Tiglath-Pileser II creates great empire extending from the Persian Gulf to the borders of Egypt. Sargon II builds new capitol at Dur-Sharrukin700 Assurbanipal extends empire from Nile to Caucasus Mountains. Chaldeans and Iranian Medes overrun Assyria - Neo-Babylonian empire. Sennacherib's son, Esaraddon, rebuilds Babylon.600 Nebuchadrezzar II rules Neo-Babylonian empire. Razes Jerusalem, takes Jews into captivity in Babylon. Builds "Tower of Babel," temple to Marduk500 Cyrus the Great, Persian warrior and statesman, conquers Babylon.
note : In my opinion most of the timetable should be placed much earlier than scholars think, such as the lifetime of King Gilgamesh (chapter 7) can be placed at least 3,500 years before the above mentioned timetable, Gilgamesh lived around 6,200 BCE.
2. Sumerians, Acadians and Babylonians
The Sumerians, Acadians and Babylonians lived in the land Mesopotamia (the land of the two rivers), known today as southern and middle Iraq and Kuwait.
The Sumerians lived about 5000-2,400 BCE. The Acadians lived more or less peacefully together with the Sumerians from about 2,500 BCE. The Babylonians conquered the Sumerians and Acadians about 1,900 BCE. (see the timetable above)
The origin of the Sumerians is unknown. (probably India) The intriguing question keeps returning into the literature but has so far unsatisfactory answers.
The Sumerians were not the first people in Mesopotamia. They were not present before 5000 BCE, while before that time village communities existed with a high degree of organization. The ''principle of agriculture'' was not discovered by the Sumerians. This is evident from words the Sumerians use for items in relation to the domestication