NEVER FIND EVEN a single book to refer to A gulf


Reply To: Al-Ahram article by Mohammad Abed Al Hadi
and Hesham Al Asmar 18/1/2002
sharq al awsat 1/1/2005 Abdul Rahman Rashid 1/12005
AL Nahar al Maghrebia
 AL Nahar al Lobnania
7/1/2005 Dr. Yasin Sueid 

Thank you for your interest to find a solution for the confusion that created by ultra nationalist and Takfeirey group among our Moslem nations of the Persian gulf area regarding the name of this most famous body of water. First of all defending of this historical name as a heritage of yours and ours fathers and ancestors have never been nationalistic or chauvinist approach, as some had claimed. one of the best reason for it ,  ( 3 years ago Iranian government based on our report  removed  pervious official name of Mazanderan (a Persian tribe ) and  replace it  by khazar  to refer to Caspian sea. this was due to our suggestion to the government based on this fact that all historical maps and documents of Iran and those of Islamic world had referred to it  as Khazar sea( a non Persian trib) till 100 years ago.  Iranian officials recognition of  this  suggestion and declaring it as only official name to be used for inside Iran and Caspian sea for foreign languages (click here for more .....) is one our  prove and a fact in this claim.
we as  Persians have never been chauvinistic and we had tolerated Arabic mass media as they had referred to it as the new name of Arabic in the past 20 years,  we joined Iranian scholars  in this campaign when we noticed that Arabs officials and some institutions conducting and treating to the ancient name of  (khaleeje al Farsi) Persian gulf  as an Takfeirey and ultra nationalist and politically approach (and in contrary to their norm  for names like of Mediterranean, Egypt ,Jordan , Tigris , Euphrates and many other names,) in translation and republication or in reintroduction of old documents , ancient books or maps they started to change its original word of khaleej al Farsi(PersianGulf) to Arabic gulf and translate word Persian to Arabian ??! I had listed at least 20  ancient books and maps even those of Arabic that recently in new edition , the original name of the Persian gulf (bahre Farsi) had been deleted or translated to Arabian gulf !?!.i.e. (Ibn Battue’s travels). This is contrary to UNESCO conventions and it is ilogic and not a scientific way of writing? We had been silent to your mass media in the past, even in discussion with your officials we had referred to the
<?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" />Persian Gulf as, the gulf, to show respect to our neighbors but we didn't see any mutual respect regarding historical truth from your side. Even Arab writers had strongly refused your mentioned suggestion of Imam Khomeini in this case, rejecting it and labled it as another expansionist policy of Magusi or Ajamism? The fact is that all the time mediator with good will like you want us to show our good will but you had never asked our Arabs extremist to show a minimum of good will. toward heritage of an ancient  nation who has been there since pre history time .Iranian had never tried to changed Arab sea  to  Persian sea although there are  many references in ancient  book and maps to Persian sea name .but on contrary  in recent 20 years there are  a strong claims and many books and article on false basis on Iranian ancient territory and geo name , many hatred anti persian material in Arabic book which insulting their heritage  and language  so there must be  blame  to extremist and  Takfeerey of your side first and then on those of our side.
Secondly, I think you agree with most famous Arab scholar like Mr.  Professor Abdul Saeed Moneam, Majdei Omar, Abdul Hadi Tazi, Ghalagei, Abdrahman Rashed in this sentences:<?xml:namespace prefix = o ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:office" />

 “There is no even a single book or map, document or any written or oral literature in Arabic or other languages in all over the world before 1950s to refer to this body of water as Arabian Gulf? All the maps even those which drawn by Arabs refer to this body of water as khaleeje or bahre Farsi (Persian) and its equivalent.” (See for Arabs scholar opinions here:

Suggestion to change this universal accepted name raised exactly after Iranian oil revolution against British by an agent of BP. in 1952 after confiscation of British Petroleum properties by Iranian government which  new and politically motivated title of Arabian Gulf was suggested by  Roderick Owen (a British member of BP whom for the first time defended  his suggestion in his book “Golden Bubble of the Arabian Gulf,” it  was later imitated by some Arab ultra nationalist  leaders  and Takfeerey groups in the region.  Professor Abdul Hadi Tazi head of Arabic countries in the  UNCSGN(United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names) and UNGEGN in an interview with IRNA said:
According to the resolutions of  the  U N Conferenc on the Standardization of Geo Names, now held every five years, and to the U N Group of Experts on Geo Names which meets between Conferences to follow up the implementation of resolutions adopted by the Conferences,  all geographical places must have officially a single name to avoid confusing in  this age of digital and information era.  this organization recognize for all place name  only one  single official  name even those who have 2 or more names  like Egypt Germany Netherlands …   had announced a single name for international maps and for standardization of names. Any international geo name change must be ratified by UNCSGN. Arabs have raised a local alternate name for
Persian Gulf but this had been rejected by the conference and even UN secretariat in 2 occasions or more have announced that internationally recognized name of the Persian Gulf and its equivalent in another 

5 UN official language is only recognized name of that body of water.

Professor Tazi also added “Current existence of 6 Arab countries is not a legal reason to change a name with 3000 universal usage background”.
As May you know all international organizations obeys the regulation of UNCSGN   and more than 15 international organizations are observer member of UNCSGN. (Among them are:
 United Nation
 UN CartographicUnit Staff.  

 IHO. International Hydrographic Organization. 
 IMO- International Maritime Organization.
 IAPO-International Associations of Physical Oceanography.
 IHB- International Hydrographic Bureau.
 United nation Documents on geographical names.
 UNICODE-Encoding Standards Consortium.
 ISO-International Standardization Organizations.
 IHA- International Hydrographic Association.
 UNGEGN-United Nations Group on Geographic Names.
 UNGIWG- United Nation Geographic Information Working group.
 UNGIS- UN Geographical Information.
 IAPO- International Association of Physical Oceanography
ICA- International Cartography Association. So any change in geographical places must be with resolution of the   UNCSGN and UNGEGN.more than 184 resolutions of 8 UNCSGN conferences you can see here like resolution No 9 of 8th conference in Berlin calling IN NOMENCULATURE TO RESPECT geographical name as heritage.see this page 55  of 151

 The United Nations and UNESCO at least has twice recognized the legality of the term “
Persian Gulf “(UNAD 311/March 5, 1971 and UNLA 1984). More than 2000 ancient literatures, books and maps belong to the past three millenniums, which contains this historical name are proof to the Persian Gulf as a right nomenclature. Even all Arab books, document, scholars up to the 1960s have also referred to the body of water As its fore ever name "Khaleej-al-Farsi" (Persian Gulf)

I am aware of that map, I have studied more than 1500 maps of Persian gulf and I have 10 atlases in this regard .   I would like to send you the attach map to add to your collection too it is call accurate map of Persia with the adjacent countries, drawn from the most approved modern maps and cartography the whole being regulated by astron observations: by Eman Bowen 1748. Persian Gulf and Persian sea.

 Regarding 'Sinus Arabicus' and 'Mare Elcatif' you can find the answer in this Saudi Arabia site:


 the gulf of Bahrain, elcatif and Basra is used by geographers as  small gulf inside the Persian gulf and 3 or 4 exceptional maps can not  nullify 3000 maps and documents , remember that Persian gulf is the only  ancient geo name  with only few exceptional references others  like   Caspian sea  .....  had been referred to  by more than 40 different names .

Please take a glance at the following atlases too:

 -THE GULF IN HISTORIC MAPS first edition 250 maps of 1493-1931 and, Second Edition Contains maps 1478-1861 a private collection of original maps edited by Sultan Bin Muhammad Al- QASIMI, Printed, Inuk by Streamline Press Limited, Leicester, England, in 1996 and 1999. And in UAE 2000 together 400 maps.

- Atlas of historical maps of Persian Gulf from pre history till present time:    Kartugrafi-i Sahab, 1349 [1971] (370 maps)

- The Arabian Peninsula in Old European Maps (260 maps) by Khaled Al Ankary 2001.institut du monde Arabe , Paris and Tunisia University  2001 .

 The Arabian peninsula in old European maps, from the end of the 15th century to the beginning of the 19th century : Khaled Al Ankary collection : Exhibition from September 15th to October 28th 2001  .Baker Berry GA1101 .P465 2001 .

 -  Tibbets, Gerald Randall, Arabian in early Maps, Naples, Italy, and Falcon press, 1978.

 - A Guide to Antique Maps Collection of king Abdulaziz Public Library.Riyadh 


- Kuwait in historical maps 1994 by  Abdul lah ghanem 200 maps

- Roots of Kuwait in Netherlands maps 1991 .14 maps

- Atlas-i Iraq dar naqshahha-yi qadimi / Ahmad Susah ;1959  Baghdad . 37 maps

- MAPS OF Bahre Fars IBN Huoghal with 11 another maps of Persian Gulf have been published by bank of Bahrain and Dar al Koran of Bahrain 1996.

and the books: "Etefaghat Seyasy Eghtesadi  from 1806 up to  1970 between Arabs and British by AliMohammad al Rashed published in UAE which  you will find more than 30 treaties which contain

The name khaleeje-e Farsi (Persian Gulf


THE ISLAND OF TUNB AND ABUMUSA An Iranian Argument in Search of Peace and Cooperation in the Persian Gulf ,Pirouz Mojtahed- Zadeh ,SOS University of London,1996.


Atlas Historique L antiquate, Carte II, Presses Universitaire Paris 1955.

Geographie de Strabon, Paris 1805. Deuxieme livre. P.357-362.

 Voyage du Merchand Arabe Sulyman en inde et Chine, Redige en 851, Gabriel Ferrand . 1922 Paris.


And the book:" political and economical treaties (Etefaghat Seyasy Eghtesadi) from 1806

Up to1870   between Arabs and British by Ali

Mohammadal Rashed, published in UAE 1989.

) see also

Atlas Altarikhia by Dr Abdul Moneam Al Majed 40 maps

Dar al fekr al Arabic 1986


- Historic maritime maps 1290-1699 Donald wigal- park son press, New York, USA.2000. 3 old maps of Persian Gulf. 

Herodotus .....s   ...).  


For further information you may consult:Persian Gulf Organization....



you WILL NEVER FIND EVEN a single book or map ,document or any written or oral things in any language in all OVER the world BEFOR 1950s to refer to this body of water as ar..ian gulf ? .....



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